torek, 27. maj 2008

Letalske nesreče pod drobnogledom

Zadnje čase je kar veliko govora o nesreči letala inex adrie MD-80, ki je na Korziki 1. dec. 1981 zadelo goro San Pietro ob pristajalni proceduri. 180 potnikov na krovu je umrlo. Marsikdo pa bi se začudil, da so se podobno hude letalske nesreče dogodile tudi pri nas. Leta 1966 septembra(tudi prvega v mesecu, kot na Korziki)je pri pristajanju na aerodromu Jožeta Pučnika zadelo krošnje dreves letalo Bristol 175 družbe Brittania Airways. Umrlo je 80 potnikov od 117 potnikov. Pilot je v pristajalni proceduri narobe nastavil pravilno višino spuščanja letala in ker je bilo ponoči ob 00:47 ni opazil dreves pod seboj.
Natančnejši opis nesreče v angleščini si lahko ogledate spodaj. Priložena je tudi kopija članka v angleškem časopisu, ki je bil objavljen naslednji dan. Prav tako si lahko ogledate kraj strmoglavljenja na priloženem zemljevidu.



Status:
Date: 01 SEP 1966
Time: 00:47
Type: Bristol 175 Britannia 102
Operator: Britannia Airways
Registration: G-ANBB
C/n / msn: 12903
First flight: 1954
Total airframe hrs: 18444
Cycles: 5380
Crew: Fatalities: 6 / Occupants: 7
Passengers: Fatalities: 92 / Occupants: 110
Total: Fatalities: 98 / Occupants: 117
Airplane damage: Written off
Location: 3 km (1.9 mls) SE of Ljubljana-Brnik Airport (LJU) (Slovenia) show on map
Phase: Approach
Nature: Int'l Non Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport: London-Luton Airport (LTN/EGGW), United Kingdom
Destination airport: Ljubljana-Brnik Airport (LJU/LJLJ), Slovenia
Flightnumber: 105
Narrative:
The Britannia aircraft approached Ljubljana runway 31 at night when it crashed into trees.

PROBABLE CAUSE: "The probable cause of the accident was that the pilot-in-command did not set his altimeter to the QFE-968 mb in accordance with the information passed by the controller. However, the whole approach to the airport was made as if the altimeter had been set to the QFE, and resulted in the approach being about 1250ft lower than procedural safety altitudes, so that the aircraft's approach was too low, because although it was a moonlight night he could not distinguish any visual land marks, which might have warned him of the low altitude, due to the nature of the trees covered terrain over which they were flying. As the altimeter error passed unnoticed by both pilots and because they were not carrying out cross-checks of the two altimeters in accordance with the relevant operations manual instruction attachment No. 15, the error was not corrected by climbing to a safe altitude.
This disregard of the procedure laid down in the check lists and operations manual for approach and landing may be explained by the fact that the approach was carried out on a moonlight night in calm weather and with visibility of approximately 12nm, which reduced the crew's concentration on precisely following the prescribed procedures and checks.
The visual effect of the runway slope made the situation worse, giving the pilots a wrong impression of the aircraft's approach angle. The co-pilot's altimeter was found set at 1005,5 mb. The difference between the QNH and QFE passed to the aircraft was approximately equivalent to 1000ft. A figure which might have led to further confusion."

Sources:
» Flight International 19.12.1968 (1018)
» ICAO Circular 88-AN/74 Volume II (124-133)

Sample newspaper article from Newspaperarchive.com

Statistics
8th loss of a Bristol Britannia
The worst accident involving a Bristol Britannia (at the time)
2nd worst accident involving a Bristol Britannia (currently)
The worst accident in Slovenia (at the time)
The worst accident in Slovenia (currently)

______________________________________________________

V Sloveniji so se pripetile še tri večje nesreče:
03-JUN-1954 Douglas DC-3 OO-CBY Sabena 1 near Maribor
19-AUG-1946 Douglas DC-3 ? USAAF 5 near Bled
09-AUG-1946 Douglas DC-3 ? USAAF Ljubljana

Opis in podatki nesreče na Korziki:

Date: 01 DEC 1981
Time: 08:53
Type: McDonnell Douglas DC-9-81
Operator: Inex Adria Aviopromet
Registration: YU-ANA
C/n / msn: 48047/998
First flight: 1981
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney JT8D-200
Crew: Fatalities: 7 / Occupants: 7
Passengers: Fatalities: 173 / Occupants: 173
Total: Fatalities: 180 / Occupants: 180
Airplane damage: Destroyed
Location: Mont San-Pietro (France) show on map
Phase: En route
Nature: Int'l Non Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport: Ljubljana-Brnik Airport (LJU/LJLJ), Slovenia
Destination airport: Ajaccio-Campo Dell'Oro Airport (AJA/LFKJ), France
Narrative:
The aircraft was on a flight from Ljubljana to Ajaccio and entered a holding pattern. The aircraft descended through the minimum holding altitude of 6800 feet and collided near the top of the Mt. San-Pietro (4477 feet high).
Factor in the accident was the imprecise language used by the DC-9 crew and the air traffic controller. The DC-9 was flying a holding pattern to lose altitude, but the controller believed the aircraft was going to make a direct descent to begin the final approach.
After several aural GPWS warnings (starting 13 seconds before impact) the crew increased engine thrust relatively slowly and pulled up too late to prevent the accident.

Sources:
» Aviation Week & Space Technology 27.02.84(34)
» Flight International 12.12.1981 (1736)

Sample newspaper article from Newspaperarchive.com

Statistics
2nd loss of a MD-80
The worst accident involving a MD-80 (at the time)
The worst accident involving a MD-80 (currently)
2nd worst accident in France (at the time)
2nd worst accident in France (currently)

Letalo YU-ANA posneto v Hamburgu NOV 1981, slab mesec pred nesrečo na gori San Pietro



vir: http://aviation-safety.net

Ni komentarjev:

Ti si moj Gospod